Restoring Tribal Economies
In the nineteenth century, the young nations of the United States and Canada enacted laws designed to undermine indigenous governance and economic independence. North America’s indigenous institutions—like tribal councils, sun dances, and potlatches—had evolved over centuries, but were suddenly declared illegal and replaced by federal programs. In both countries, a diverse set of indigenous governance structures, property rights, and trade networks was replaced by a monolithic system that centralized the provision of goods and services and fostered dependence on federal governments. “The indigenous population of the hemisphere was deprived not only of land and freedom,” observes Hoover fellow Thomas Sowell, but also of “the underlying foundation of cultural traditions on which any society is based.”
In today's indigenous communities we are observing a “renaissance in tribal self-governance” and an “economic civil rights movement.” Put another way, the devolution of power from the Feds to tribes is an experiment in federalism and decentralization—one that appears to be working. The innovation emerging on reservations in the United States can unlock many untapped resources for Native Americans.
Creating the Alliance for Renewing Indigenous Economies
This summer, Alliance founders from Canada and New Zealand gathered in Kamloops, Brtitish Columbia. The Tulo Centre captured some of the conversation about the similarities and differences between the Maori experience and the First Nations experience. "We are joined by the Pacific, it doesn't divide us," explains Manny Jules.
Listen to Tulo's podcast to explore the importance of jurisdiction and the revolutionary ideas of the Alliance for Renewing Indigenous Economies. It isn't about just identity, language, and song. It's actually about fundamental well being and community, which includes economics as its underpinning.
Juli Holloway from the First Nations Tax Commission
Manny Jules from the Tulo Centre of Indigenous Economics
Te Maire Tau, Darren Russell, and Rinito Davis from the Ngāi Tahu Research Centre at the University of Canterbury
Uncle Sam is not a guardian of the Blackfeet Nation
Native American tribes remain trapped in a form of colonialism. It's time for it to end.
Zuckerberg meets Native American poverty
The Blackfeet, like so many tribes are searching for ways to free themselves from colonial bondage, and there is hope. Lance Morgan, managing partner of a national tribal law firm, noted in the Arizona State Law Journal, “The economic rise of tribes in the last twenty-five years, largely due to long term impact of self-determination, gaming, natural resource development, and the ancillary rise of tribal corporations, has changed the basic economic and legal equation.”
Jurisdiction critical for First Nations in nation-to-nation relationship
Confederation was based on the fiction that First Nations title and jurisdiction didn’t exist — a founding myth that has been busted many times by the courts in the last 40 years.
Now is the time to commit ourselves to creating protected First Nation powers and revenue authorities within the FMA. This would help complete Confederation and bring about reconciliation. It would reject the notion that indigenous people can’t govern themselves. It would provide an option to implement many recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. It would provide a true nation-to-nation option.
As we enter the 150th year of Confederation, we are ready for the dawn of a new era for this country.
Native American Sovereignty: Should Indians have more control over their land?
“Trusteeship wraps these reservations in red tape,” says Terry Anderson. Tribes should have “authority over the land within reservation boundaries. I think from there, tribes can decide what they want to do.”
Native American Economics
Economic life before the arrival of Europeans and how current policy affects Native Americans living on reservations today.
Sovereignty for Indian Nations
Sovereignty and self-determination would allow Native Americans to build on their rich cultural history.
Quiet Crisis: Unmet Needs in Indian Country
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
In testimony before the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Alliance co-founder Terry Anderson explains that the poverty gap between Native Americans and other Americans is an institutional gap:
In the case of indigenous peoples, such institutions are a combination of rules and compliance procedures that evolved over a long period prior to western contact and of rules and compliance procedures that were imposed by the westerners with whom indigenous people came in contact.
The institutional gap for Native Americans includes both a lack of property rights for Indians to most reservation land and a lack of a rule of law on most reservations, and it is that institutional infrastructure that is as crucial as physical and educational infrastructure to “unlocking the wealth of Indian Nations.”
Sovereignty means having the authority to make decisions and the willingness to accept the consequences of those decisions. In the short-term, the federal government has a trust responsibility, including funding for reservation infrastructure, which it must live up to. But in the long-term, it should focus on providing the institutions that promote self-sufficiency both for tribes and individual Indians.